Roofing is the covering of a structure, consisting of all construction and materials needed to support it on either upright, around the exterior wall of the structure, or on the top surfaces of the outer building envelope, giving protection from rain, sun, snow, extreme temperatures, and winds. Roofing is also part of the outer building envelope. It protects the structural members of the structure from weather and environmental threats. Roofs may be flat or pitched, depending on the climatic conditions and aesthetics of the area. A roof can serve as a decorative element of the exterior architecture of a structure or serve as the main structure supporting the roof. While choosing the roofing material, several factors have to be taken into consideration, such as type of building structure, type of roof, location, climate, cost of installation, maintenance, aesthetics, and cost of replacement.
Flat roof: The most common type of roofing is a flat or pitched roof. This kind of roof system allows for expansion and contraction of wind loads due to any direction change in the slope of a roof surface. These roofs are popularly used in areas with lower levels of elevation, where snow accumulation is not a problem. In addition to providing maximum protection, they are the easiest to install and maintain.
Pitched roof: A pitched roof may have more than one plane or pitch. Each pitch has its own purpose, such as ventilation, energy efficiency, protection, and aesthetics. The number of pitches may depend on different factors such as climatic conditions, roof height, use, and size of the building. Another factor is the quality or condition of the roof materials used, such as clay tiles, slate, iron, steel, wood, concrete, etc. The roofing material, together with proper application techniques, may help in achieving a good aesthetic appearance. However, the most important thing is to maintain the roof and ensure it is maintained properly to keep the structure safe and sound.